Modeling based on design of a dual thermal management system for the battery pack of a full electric minibus
Applied Thermal Engineering
Lithium-ion battery packs are increasingly being adopted indifferent kinds of hybrid or even full electric vehicles, for more efficient energy usage and better environmental performance in cities. As demand for power and energy increase, the adequate temperature control and maintenance of such battery packs is essential for their efficient operation, maximum lifetime and safety, by employing a well dimensioned thermal management system. This paper describes a simulation model at the system level, based on differential algebraic equations, used to assess such a thermal management system for a specific full electric minibus application. Two different operation modes have been considered: free cooling and active cooling. Both modes have been experimentally validated, by comparing simulation results with laboratory measurements using a scaled prototype. The maximum battery module time-averaged temperature prediction error is 0.4 °C and 0.7 °C for free cooling and active cooling, respectively. Once the models have been validated, the performance of the proposed dual architecture is checked for different ambient conditions, routes and design variants, and the most suitable option is selected for battery module consumption and thermal performance.